In the Anti-Transcendentalism era, there were many writers that spent their lives writing novels about
how the government was full of injustice and corruption. constab7.jpg





Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allen Poe were the "Dark Romantics" of the Anti-Transcendentalists movement. nathaniel_hawthorne.jpgHowever, Hawthorne and Melville were the most monumental writers in this period.
JohnAlcorn_TheScarletLetter.jpg
Nathaniel Hawthorn wrote the Scarlet Letter as a example of how immoral the government was during this time. He wrote this novel to portray the injustice in the punishments they decree. In the Scarlet Letter, Hester was accused by the government for having another lover, so she was disgraced for the rest of her life by having to wear an A across her clothing at all times. Sultry, and by wearing it she has to bear the ridicule of her actions forever.




melville.jpgHerman Melville
Melville wrote the novel Moby Dick. Herman harshly critiicized capitalism, slavery, war and imperialism. However, he showed passion towards "classes of men who bear the same relation to society at large that the wheels do to a coach." http://www.slideshare.net/ahearnet/antitranscendentalism As a last quote by Melville, he stated,"If, at my death, my executors, or more properly my creditors, find any precious manuscripts in my desk, then here I prospectively ascribe all the honor and glory to whaling; for the whale ship was my Yale moby-dick.jpgCollege and my Harvard."



The writer's beliefs were:
  • That each human spirit had a potential destructiveness
  • In individual truths, but not universal truths, and also that the truths of existance are deceitful and disturbing
  • that human nature has an original sin and that evil is active in the universe
Reasons/ causes
  • Opposed the optimism and naïve idealism of the transcendentalists
  • Dwelt on the guilt and remorse over past sins
  • Discontented with current circumstances in America (poverty/unjust and cruel treatment of factory workers, poor educational system, lack of women’s rights, slavery…) so they focused on moral dilemmas and society’s ills
  • Focused on the dark side of humanity and the evilness and guilt of sin